Principles of Physical Metallurgy

IIT Kharagpur Course , Prof. R.N. Ghosh

Lecture 1: Mod-01 Lec-01 Introduction

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Lecture Details :

Principles of Physical Metallurgy by Prof. R.N. Ghosh,Department of Metallurgy and Material Science,IIT Kharagpur.For more details on NPTEL visit

Course Description :

Atomic Bonding & Crystal Structure : Metallic bond, unit cell, atomic packing, interstitial sites, Miller indices, crystal orientation, stereographic projection.
Experimental tools & techniques : Metallography (Optical TEM, SEM), X Ray Diffraction, Mechanical Properties, Thermal analysis.

Solidification of pure metal : Phase rule, Concept of Free Energy, Entropy, Surface Energy (grain boundary)& under cooling, Nucleation& Growth, homogeneous& heterogeneous nucleation, directional solidification.
Plastic deformation of pure metal : Mechanisms(slip& twin), critical resolved shear stress, single crystal tensile test (fcc), theoretical strength of ideal crystal.

Crystal defects in metals : Vacancy, interstitial, substitutional, free energy of mixing, dislocation (elementary concepts only), edge / screw dislocation, partial dislocation, stacking fault, dislocation lock, dislocation pile up, Hall Petch relation, grain boundary structure.
Diffusion : Elementary concepts of phenomenological& atomistic approaches.

Solidification of binary alloys : Limits of solubility, isomorphous system, lever rule, constitutional super cooling, effect of non equilibrium cooling, eutectic, peritectic, eutectoid& peritectoid system, complex phase diagram, ternary diagram, composition triangle, ternary eutectic, vertical& horizontal sections, structure of cast metal, segregation& porosity, iron-carbon diagram, steel& cast iron.

Binary phase diagrams of common commercial alloys : Cu-Ni, Au-Cu, Ni-Cr, Al-Si, Al-Zn, Al-Ag, Pb-Sn, Cu-Zn, Cu-Sn, Cu-Al, Ti-Al, Ti-V: interpretation of microstructure& properties.
Cold working & Annealing : Recovery, recrystallization& grain growth, phenomenological& mechanistic approaches.

Precipitation from super-saturated terminal solid solution : Thermodynamics& kinetics of precipitation, precipitation hardening.
Heat treatment of steel : T-T-T diagram, Pearlitic, Martensitic& Bainitic transformation, effect of alloy elements on phase diagram& TTT diagram, CCT diagram, Annealing, normalizing, hardening& tempering, hardenability.

Application of physical metallurgy : Strengthening mechanism, strength vs. toughness (ductility), thermo mechanical processing, micro alloyed steel, ultra high strength steel, superalloy, control of texture.

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