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Steel Making

Lecture 42: Mod-01 Lec-42 Lecture-42

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Lecture Details :

Steel Making by Prof.Deepak Mazumdar,Prof.S.C.Koria,Department of Metallurgy and Material Science,IIT Kanpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in

Course Description :

Introduction (DM) : Introductory Remarks,A Historical Perspective,An Overview of Modern Iron and Steelmaking,Energy in Iron and Steel Industry,Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Issues - Environmental Issues - Health and Safety Issues,Iron and Steel: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow,Concluding Remarks.

The Science Base of Iron and Steelmaking (DM) : Introductory Remarks,Metallurgical Thermodynamics - Chemical Equilibrium - Activity and Equilibrium Constant - ΔG0 for Oxides - Activity Composition Relationships - Concentrated Solutions - Dilute Solutions - Chemical Potential and Equilibrium,Fluid Dynamics - Inference of Fluid Flow in steelmaking - Force Balance Expressions and Momentum Conservation Equations - Boundary Conditions - Laminar and Turbulent Flows - Calculation of Turbulent Flows in Steelmaking,Heat Transfer - Mechanism of Heat Transfer - Heat Conduction - Convective Heat Transfer - Radiation,Mass Transfer and Metallurgical Kinetics - Mechanism of Mass Transfer - Molecular Diffusion - Convective Mass Transfer - Chemical Reaction Kinetics.
Concluding Remarks.

Modern Steelmaking I: Oxygen Steelmaking (SCK) : Introductory Remarks,Historical Perspectives: Steelmaking Processes and their Developments,Pre - treatment of Hot Metal,Classification of Steels and the Role of Impurity Elements,Steelmaking Fundamentals - Chemical Reactions Equilibria - Carbon - Oxygen Reaction - Phosphorous - Oxygen Reaction - Manganese - Oxygen Reaction - Silicon - Oxygen Reaction - Sulphur - Oxygen Reaction (Desulphurization) - Iron-Oxygen Reaction - Slag Formation - Role of Slag - Basicity - Foaming Tendency - Oxidizing/Reducing Potential of Slag,The LD Steelmaking (Practice) process - The LD Converter - Lance - LD Shop Layout - Charge Calculations - Feed Materials - Physico - Chemical Characteristics of LD Steelmaking - Description of a Typical Heat - Exit Gases - Tapping - Modern Trends - Post Combustion - Slag Splashing,Bottom Blown Steelmaking,The Evolution of Combination Blown Steelmaking and its Distinctive Features,Concluding Remarks.

Modern Steelmaking II: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking (SCK) : Introductory Remarks,Electric Steelmaking,Steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) - Construction of an Arc Furnace - Operation - Steelmaking in EAF - Eccentric Bottom Tapping - Comparison with Oxygen Steelmaking - Environmental issues in Arc Furnace Steelmaking,Developments in EAF steelmaking Technology - Oxygen lancing including Co jet - Gas injection through bottom - Post Combustion - Automation and Process control,Alloy Steelmaking in EAF with Some Examples,Concluding Remarks.

Steelmaking: Additional Topics (SCK) : Introductory Remarks,Other Steelmaking Processes - EOF (Energy Optimizing Furnace) Process - CONARC Process.
Refractory in steelmaking - Requirements of refractory Material - Various Refractory Materials - Fabrication and Types of Refractory Products - Emerging Trends,Clean steel - Cleanliness Assessment - Inclusions and Mechanical Properties - Sources of Inclusion in steel - Types of Inclusions - Properties of Inclusions - Inclusion Engineering,Process Control and Automation in Steel Industry - BOF - EAF,Concluding Remarks.

Deoxidation, Ladle and Tundish Metallurgy Operations (DM) : Introductory Remarks,slag Carry-over: Impact on Ladle Metallurgy,Deoxidation - Techniques of Deoxidizer Addition - Physical and Chemical Interaction between Solid Additions and Steel Melt - Types of Deoxidation - Deoxidation Kinetics and Products,Ladle Metallurgy Steelmaking Operations - Construction of Steelmaking ladles; Ladle Refractory, Preheating and Recycling - The Method of Inert Gas Stirring in Ladles - Temperature and Composition Control in Ladles - The Ladle Furnace - Injection Metallurgy - Miscellaneous Issues in Ladle Metallurgy,Vacuum Degassing - Principles - Degassing Techniques - Stream Degassing - Tank Degassing - Circulation Degassing - Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Hydrogen and Nitrogen Removal under Vacuum - Water Capacity of Ladle Slags,Flow sheet for Production of Clean Steel - Transfer Operations,Tundish Metallurgy - Tundish Design and Operations - Temperature and Cleanliness Control in Tundish - Sequence Casting and Grade Transition - Residual Metal loss in Ladles and Tundish,Concluding Remarks.

Solidification and Casting Processes (SCK) : Introductory Remarks,Fundamental Aspects of Solidification,Casting Processes - Ingot Casting - Continuous Casting - Process description - Continuous Casting Products and Casting Defects - Emerging Trends in Continuous Slab Casting - EM stirring and EM braking - Gas Injection in Mold - High Speed Slab Casting - Thin Slab casting - Strip Casting,Final Finishing Operations - Surface Treatment - Heat Treatment - Shaping and Secondary Product Manufacturing (Including Deformation Processing),Concluding Remarks.

Modeling and Measurements (DM) : Introductory Remarks,The role of Modeling in Iron and Steelmaking - Physical Modeling - Geometrical Similarity - Mechanical Similarity - Thermal Similarity - Chemical Similarity - Scaling Equations - Mathematical Modeling - Developing a Mathematical Model - The Role of Flow Modeling in Steelmaking - The Role of Commercial Software Packages - Sources of Uncertainty in Mathematical Model Predictions,Physical and Mathematical Modeling: Case Studies - Blast Furnace - Oxygen Steelmaking - Argon Stirred Ladles - Continuous Casting,Measurements and Measuring Devices in Iron and Steelmaking,Concluding Remarks.

Iron and Steelmaking in India (DM) : Introductory Remarks,Raw Materials - Availability, Distribution and Reserve - Characteristics of Indian Raw Materials and their Impact on Iron and Steelmaking,Iron and Steelmaking in India - Early years - Steelmaking in Modern India - Integrated and Mini Mils - Layout of an Integrated Iron and Steel Plant - Future,Problems Facing the Domestic Steel Producing Sectors - Mini Mills - Integrated Mills,Steel Education and Research in India,Concluding Remarks - DM: Dipak Mazumdar - SCK: Satish Ch. Koria.

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