NUCLEAR REACTORS AND SAFETY

Other Course , Prof. G.Vaidyanathan

Lecture 1: Energy Sources

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Lecture Details :

NUCLEAR REACTORS AND SAFETY- AN INTRODUCTION by Dr.G.Vaidyanathan,SRM University.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in

Course Description :

Introduction - Energy sources, Nuclear Power Production, medical and Societal applications of radiation - Nuclear fuel cycle - Basic Physics of Nuclear Reactors:Atomic Structure, isotopes, Radioactivity , half life - Basics of fission reaction, Moderation, Criticality, Decay heat, Reactivity and Feedback, Breeding;Nuclear Reactor Types:Components of Nuclear Reactor, Present Reactor Types - Generation IV Concepts - Radiation sources and Protection:Radiation and its units, Natural background and man made Radiation - Biological Effects, Exposure limits and protection, Sources of radiation, shielding;Safety Principles:Safety objectives, Defence in depth philosophy, Multiple barriers, Rad-waste management - Levels of defence, Redundancy, Diversity Principles, Event analysis, core inventory, emergency response;Safety Approach:Deterministic approach- Design Basis Events & Beyond Design Basis Events, Acceptance Criteria - Probabilistic approach- Fault tree, event tree, failure rates;History of Events in Nuclear reactors and facilities:INES Scale, TMI, Chernobyl, Fukushima, Windscale, Thorp Reprocessing - Kshtym, Vandellos, Tokaimura, NRX, David Besse, Enrico Fermi, Narora Fire, Monju and FBTR Sodium Leak, Radiation over exposures in Industry and Medical applications;Analysis of Some Events in NPP:Heat transfer and Fluid flow prediction, validation, Safety set points, Safety actions for events - Spurious opening of Pressuriser valve in a PWR, LOCA analysis Indian PHWR, Station Blackout without Reactor Trip, FBTR;Quality Assurance:Quality Assurance Plan, materials, Design, Fabrication, Maintenance Surveillance, In Service Inspection, Training & Qualification, Quality Audit;Siting of Nuclear plants:Site evaluation Stages, Site Rejection Criteria, Earthquake, Geological criteria, Meteorological considerations - Flooding, Tsunami, Shoreline erosion, chemical explosion, Radiological impact study, Radioactivity pathways to humans, environmental Impact study;Engineered Safety Systems:Shutdown systems in PWR,BWR,PHWR, Reactivity Worth of shutdown system, Trip Signals, Safety Logic - Operating Environment, Grouping of safety systems, Heat Removal systems, Emergency Core Cooling, Containment and subsystems

Assessment of Radiological Consequences:Basis of Containment, Quantity of Radioactive materials, Neutron activation of Structures, Transfer and deposition in buildings, Containment leak rate, Environmental Transport and Deposition, source term;Safety Regulation In India:Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, functions, safety Documents, Safety Review of site, design, regulatory inspections, safety review for PFBR, Koodankulam - Regulatory review of operating plants, Licensing stages, licensing of operating personnel, Training simulator, safety up-gradation Review after TMI Chernobyl - Review after Fukushima, safety review for decommissioning, Safety Review of Radiation Facilities, medical X-ray units, Gamma irradiators;Safety Practices in Indian NPP:Radiological Protection to workers and public, Dose limits, Health physics, AERB Review - Environmental radiological surveillance, Radiation around Coal and Nuclear Power plants, Emergency Preparedness and planning, on-site emergency - Offsite Emergency Plans, National Disaster Management Authority, Crisis management Group of DAE, State and District level Committees, Emergency Exercises;Passive Safety:Definition, Categorization, Passive Reactor Shutdown systems for PHWR, FBR, Passive Decay Heat Removal Systems for PWR,PHWR - Passive safety for containment cooling, Passive containment spray, hydrogen removal through PAHR, Passive features of AP600 and Advanced Heavy Water Reactor Designs, Issues related to Passive safety

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