Ground Water Hydrology

IIT Kharagpur Course , Prof. V.R. Desai

Lecture 1: Introduction : Ground Water (GW) Utilization and Historical Background

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Lecture Details :

Ground Water Hydrology by Dr. V.R. Desai & Dr. Anirban Dhar,Department of Civil Engineering,IIT Kharagpur.For more details on NPTEL visit

Course Description :

INTRODUCTION: Ground water utilization & historical background, ground water in hydrologic cycle, ground water budget, ground water level fluctuations & environmental influence, literature/ data/ internet resources;OCCURRENCE AND MOVEMENT OF GROUND WATER: Origin & age of ground water, rock properties affecting groundwater, groundwater column, zones of aeration & saturation, aquifers and their characteristics/classification, groundwater basins & springs, Darcys Law, permeability & its determination, Dupuit assumptions, heterogeneity &anisotropy, Ground water flow rates & flow directions, general flow equations through porous media;ADVANCED WELL HYDRAULICS: steady/ unsteady, uniform/ radial flow to a well in a confined/ unconfined /leaky aquifer, well flow near aquifer boundaries/ for special conditions, partially penetrating/horizontal wells & multiple well systems, well completion/ development/ protection/ rehabilitation/ testing for yield;POLLUTION AND QUALITY ANALYSIS OF GROUND WATER: Municipal /industrial /agricultural /miscellaneous sources & causes of pollution, attenuation/ underground distribution / potential evaluation of pollution, physical /chemical /biological analysis of ground water quality, criteria & measures of ground water quality, ground water salinity & samples, graphical representations of ground water quality.

SURFACE/ SUB-SURFACE INVESTIGATION OF GROUND WATER: Geological /geophysical exploration/ remote sensing / electric resistivity /seismic refraction based methods for surface investigation of ground water, test drilling & ground water level measurement, sub-surface ground water investigation through geophysical / resistivity /spontaneous potential /radiation / temperature / caliper / fluid conductivity / fluid velocity /miscellaneous logging;ARTIFICIAL GROUND WATER RECHARGE: Concept & methods of artificial ground water recharge, recharge mounds & induced recharge, wastewater recharge for reuse, water spreading;SALINE WATER INTRUSION IN AQUIFERS: Ghyben-Herzberg relation between fresh & saline waters, shape & structure of the fresh & saline water interface, upcoming of saline water, fresh-saline water relations on oceanic islands, seawater intrusion in Karst terrains, saline water intrusion control;MODELING AND MANAGEMENT OF GROUND WATER: Ground water modeling through porous media /analog / electric analog / digital computer models, ground water basin management concept, hydrologic equilibrium equation, ground water basin investigations, data collection & field work, dynamic equilibrium in natural aquifers, management potential & safe yield of aquifers, stream-aquifer interaction

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