Engineering Geology

IIT Kharagpur Course , Prof. Debasis Roy

Lecture 26: Groundwater Flow

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Course Description :

Introduction:
Origin and development
Geologic Mapping and Remote Sensing:
Topographic maps, geologic maps, preparation of geologic sections, aerial photographs, LIDAR, SAR, GIS (3 lectures + 1 laboratory)
Mineralogy:
Chemical analysis of rocks and minerals, rock and soil minerals, physical properties of minerals, susceptibility of minerals to alteration, basics of optical mineralogy, SEM, XRD
Classification of Soil and Rock:
Types of rock and origin: Igneous (extrusive and intrusive), sedimentary and metamorphic, ternary diagrams, definitions (structure, texture)
Igneous Rock:
Agents, structure, texture, IUGG classification of intrusive and extrusive rocks
Metamorphic Rock:
Causes of metamorphism (stress, temperature, tectonism, pore fluid), recrystallization, phase change, structure and texture
Sedimentary Rock:
Sedimentation environments, structure, textural classification of siliclastic and carbonate rock
Soil Formation:
Weathering processes, transportation and sedimentation processes, structure, texture and classification, surficial deposits and landforms
Subsurface exploration:
Intrusive and non intrusive sub-surface investigation, drilling and sampling, geophysical methods, geologic investigations for site selection of dams, reservoirs, tunnels, bridges and highways
Engineering Properties of Soil and Rock:
Engineering properties (density, unit weight, porosity), strength, index measurements for soil and rock (SPT blow count, RQD, RMR, Point Load Index), relationships of index measurements with strength of soil and rock.
Strength Behavior of Soil and Rock:
Stress and strain in rock, Mohrs Circle, concept of effective stress, failure of soil and rock, fracturing of rock, folds, faults and joints in rock, shear failure of soil and rock, consequences of failure (landslides, earthquakes, subsidence)
Subsurface water:
Sources, aquifer, aquiclude, water table, Artesian groundwater in soil and rock, springs, hydraulic conductivity and its measurement, Darcys law, well hydraulics, well yield, water capacity of rock, lowering of water table and subsidence, salt water intrusion in coastal areas
Geologic and seismotectonic setting of India:
Geologic provinces of India and their surficial and subsurface geology, seismotectonics of the Indian plate, seismic zones of India
Geological Hazards:
Major geological hazards Geological considerations in design of constructed facilities and infrastructure, causes and classification of landslides, stability assessment for soil and rock slopes, mitigation of landslide hazard, effect of earthquakes on constructed facilities and infrastructure, geotechnical and structural considerations in mitigation of earthquake hazard.

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