Advanced Hydrology

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2 STUDENTS

INTRODUCTION : Hydrologic cycle, water budget equation, world water quantities, residence time, systems concept, transfer function operators, hydrologic model classification – HYDROLOGIC PROCESSES : Reynold’s Transport Theorem, continuity equation, momentum equation, energy equation, discrete time continuity – ATMOSPHERIC HYDROLOGY : Atmospheric circulation, water vapor, formation of rainfall, types and forms of precipitation, precipitable water, monsoon characteristics in India, rainfall measurement, density and adequacy of rain gauges – Thunderstorm Cell model, IDF relationships, spatial averaging methods of rainfall;Factors affecting evaporation, estimation and measurement of evaporation, energy balance method, aerodynamic method, Priestly-Taylor method, and pan evaporation – SUB-SURFACE WATER : Soil moisture, porosity, saturated and unsaturated flow; Richard’s equation, infiltration, Horton’s Phillip’s, and Green Ampt methods, parameter estimation, ponding time concepts – SURFACE WATER : Catchment storage concept, Hortonian and saturation overland flow, streamflow hydrographs, base-flow separation – Phi-index, ERH & DRH, algorithm for abstraction using Green-Ampt equation, SCS method, overland and channel flow modeling, time area concepts, and stream networks.

UNIT HYDROGRAPH : General hydrologic system model, response functions of a linear hydrologic systems and their inter-relationships, convolution equation; definition and limitations of a UH;UH derivation from single and complex storms; UH optimization using regression. matrix, and LP methods – Synthetic unit hydrograph, S-Curve, IUH – HYDROLOGIC STATISTICS : Probability concepts, random variables, laws of probability, PDFs & CDFs;Normal and Binomial distributions; Statistical parameters: expected value, variance, skewness, and peakedness – Fitting of a probability distribution, methods of moments and maximum likelihood: Testing the goodness of fit, Chi-square test – Frequency analysis: return period, probability plotting, Extreme value distributions, frequency factors, Log-Pearson distribution, confidence limits – GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY : Occurrence of groundwater, aquifers & their properties, Darcy’s law, permeability, transmissibility, stratification, confined groundwater flow, unconfined groundwater flow under Dupit’s assumptions;
Well hydraulics, steady flow into confined and unconfined wells; Unsteady flow in a confined aquifer.

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