Fluid Mechanics III

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Introduction to process fluid mechanics; Dimensions and units; SI units – Fundamental concepts: Definition of a fluid; Continuum hypothesis; Velocity field;Stress field; Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids – Fluid statics: pressure variation in a static fluid, hydrostatic forces on submerged surfaces, buoyancy; Illustration by examples – Macroscopic Balances: derivation of integral balances for mass, energy and momentum; Derivation of engineering Bernoulli equation with losses – Application of macroscopic balances: Losses in expansion, Force on a reducing bend, Diameter of a free jet; Jet ejector – Differential balances of fluid flow: derivation of continuity and momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations for a Newtonian fluid – Applications to plane Couette, plane Poiseuille and pipe flows – Dimensional analysis and similitude: Buckingham Pi theorem and applications – High-Reynolds number flows: inviscid flows and potential flows – Boundary layer theory – Pipe flows and fittings: laminar and turbulent flows; friction factor charts, losses in fittings, flow in manifolds – Flow past immersed bodies: flow past a sphere and other submerged objects – Flow through packed beds and fluidized beds – Agitation and mixing: power consumption, mixing times, scale up – Flow measurement: Orifice meter, venturi meter, Pitot tube, and Rotameters – Brief introduction to non-conventional methods: Laser Doppler velocimetry, Particle image velocimetry, ultrasonic flow meters,electromagnetic flow meters – Fluid transportation: Valves and Pumps and Compressors – Non-Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids; viscometry – Introduction to turbulent flows

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