IIT Madras Course , Prof. K. Ramamurthi

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IIT Madras Course , Prof. K. Ramamurthi

Contents:

Background and Requirements : Introduction, Motion of bodies in space, parameters describing motion of bodies, frame of reference - Impulse, force, universal law for gravitational force, motion in rotating frame of reference, pseudo-centrifugal force - Orbits, orbit velocities, orbital period, geosynchronous and geostationary orbits, eccentricity and inclination, polar, sun-synchronous and other orbits - Energy requirements for orbit, escape velocity, orbital and suborbital flight, state of weightlessness under free fall.

Rocket Principle : Means of achieving orbit, Motion of a sled initially at rest - Motion of giant squids, Rocket principle and Rocket equation - Mass ratio of rocket, desirable parameters to achieve high velocities, propulsive efficiency - Performance parameters of a rocket, staging and clustering, classification of rockets.

Nozzles : Rocket nozzles: Expansion of gases from high pressure chamber, efflux velocity, shape of nozzle - Convergent divergent nozzle, choking, variation of parameters in nozzle - Expansion ratio of nozzles, Performance loss in nozzles - Under-expanded and over-expanded nozzles, flow separation - Contour nozzles, adapted nozzles and unconventional nozzles,mass flow rates and characteristic velocities - Thrust developed by a rocket, thrust coefficient, vacuum and sea level specific impulse, efficiencies and thrust correction factor.

Chemical propellants : Choice from considerations of molecular mass, specific heats, specific heat ratios, temperature and pressure - Choice of chemical propellants: heats of formation, moles and mixture ratio; choice of mixture ratio - Calculation of heat of combustion, temperature, molecular mass and rocket performance parameters - Solid propellants: Double base, composite, composite modified double base and nitramine propellants - Liquid propellants; Energy content and classification, Earth storable and space storable propellants, hypergolic and other features, hybrid propellants - Influence of dissociation on propellant performance, frozen and equilibrium analysis.

Solid Propellant Rockets : burn rate of double base and composite propellants, parameters influencing burn rates - Choice of burn rates for stable operation - Propellant grain configurations: design of solid propellant rocket - Ignition of solid propellant rockets, ignition problems and solutions - Characteristic burn times and action times of solid propellant rockets, variation of burn rates with rocket size, erosive burning, components of solid propellant rocket.

Liquid Propellant Rockets : Introduction to liquid propellant rockets, propellant feed systems, cycles of operation, gas generator, topping/staged combustion cycle, expander and other cycles, factors influencing choice of cycle - Thrust chamber, injector types, combustion chamber - Calculation of efficiency of liquid propellant rockets from non uniform distribution of propellants and incomplete vaporization, characteristic length of chamber - Cooling of thrust chamber and nozzle - Performance and choice of feed system cycle, Choice of parameters for liquid propellant rockets - Turbo-pumps for liquid propellant rockets - Expulsion of propellants using high pressure gas and mass requirements, draining of propellants under microgravity conditions - Complexity of liquid propellant rockets, determination of performance; current trends.

Monopropellant and hybrid Rockets : Monopropellant rockets - Hybrid rockets.

Combustion Instability in Rockets : illustration through examples, bulk and wave modes of instability - Modeling of bulk mode of instability in solid and liquid propellant rockets - Standing waves and characteristic frequencies in different wave modes - Modeling of wave mode instability in rockets - Other types of instabilities; Pogo, vortex shedding etc., Methods of overcoming instability problems.

Electrical Rockets : Electrical rockets: electrical and magnetic fields, electro-thermal, arc-jet, electrostatic and electromagnetic thrusters - Gridded ion thrusters, neutralization and thrust limitations, Hall effect thrusters - Choice of parameters for electrical thrusters, specific mass and optimum efflux velocity, Current trends in electrical rockets.

Nuclear and Advanced Propulsion : Nuclear, tri-propellant and advanced propulsion: Future trends.

Background and Requirements : Introduction, Motion of bodies in space, parameters describing motion of bodies, frame of reference - Impulse, force, universal law for gravitational force, motion in rotating frame of reference, pseudo-centrifugal force - Orbits, orbit velocities, orbital period, geosynchronous and geostationary orbits, eccentricity and inclination, polar, sun-synchronous and other orbits - Energy requirements for orbit, escape velocity, orbital and suborbital flight, state of weightlessness under free fall.

Rocket Principle : Means of achieving orbit, Motion of a sled initially at rest - Motion of giant squids, Rocket principle and Rocket equation - Mass ratio of rocket, desirable parameters to achieve high velocities, propulsive efficiency - Performance parameters of a rocket, staging and clustering, classification of rockets.

Nozzles : Rocket nozzles: Expansion of gases from high pressure chamber, efflux velocity, shape of nozzle - Convergent divergent nozzle, choking, variation of parameters in nozzle - Expansion ratio of nozzles, Performance loss in nozzles - Under-expanded and over-expanded nozzles, flow separation - Contour nozzles, adapted nozzles and unconventional nozzles,mass flow rates and characteristic velocities - Thrust developed by a rocket, thrust coefficient, vacuum and sea level specific impulse, efficiencies and thrust correction factor.

Chemical propellants : Choice from considerations of molecular mass, specific heats, specific heat ratios, temperature and pressure - Choice of chemical propellants: heats of formation, moles and mixture ratio; choice of mixture ratio - Calculation of heat of combustion, temperature, molecular mass and rocket performance parameters - Solid propellants: Double base, composite, composite modified double base and nitramine propellants - Liquid propellants; Energy content and classification, Earth storable and space storable propellants, hypergolic and other features, hybrid propellants - Influence of dissociation on propellant performance, frozen and equilibrium analysis.

Solid Propellant Rockets : burn rate of double base and composite propellants, parameters influencing burn rates - Choice of burn rates for stable operation - Propellant grain configurations: design of solid propellant rocket - Ignition of solid propellant rockets, ignition problems and solutions - Characteristic burn times and action times of solid propellant rockets, variation of burn rates with rocket size, erosive burning, components of solid propellant rocket.

Liquid Propellant Rockets : Introduction to liquid propellant rockets, propellant feed systems, cycles of operation, gas generator, topping/staged combustion cycle, expander and other cycles, factors influencing choice of cycle - Thrust chamber, injector types, combustion chamber - Calculation of efficiency of liquid propellant rockets from non uniform distribution of propellants and incomplete vaporization, characteristic length of chamber - Cooling of thrust chamber and nozzle - Performance and choice of feed system cycle, Choice of parameters for liquid propellant rockets - Turbo-pumps for liquid propellant rockets - Expulsion of propellants using high pressure gas and mass requirements, draining of propellants under microgravity conditions - Complexity of liquid propellant rockets, determination of performance; current trends.

Monopropellant and hybrid Rockets : Monopropellant rockets - Hybrid rockets.

Combustion Instability in Rockets : illustration through examples, bulk and wave modes of instability - Modeling of bulk mode of instability in solid and liquid propellant rockets - Standing waves and characteristic frequencies in different wave modes - Modeling of wave mode instability in rockets - Other types of instabilities; Pogo, vortex shedding etc., Methods of overcoming instability problems.

Electrical Rockets : Electrical rockets: electrical and magnetic fields, electro-thermal, arc-jet, electrostatic and electromagnetic thrusters - Gridded ion thrusters, neutralization and thrust limitations, Hall effect thrusters - Choice of parameters for electrical thrusters, specific mass and optimum efflux velocity, Current trends in electrical rockets.

Nuclear and Advanced Propulsion : Nuclear, tri-propellant and advanced propulsion: Future trends.

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2.8 (36 Ratings)

Rocket Propulsion by Prof. K. Ramamurthi, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Madras. For more details on NPTEL visit httpnptel.iitm.ac.in

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- 1.Mod-01 Lec-01 Introduction
- 2.Mod-01 Lec-02 Motion in Space
- 3.Mod-01 Lec-03 Rotational Frame of Reference and Orbital Velocities
- 4.Mod-01 Lec-04 Velocity Requirements
- 5.Mod-01 Lec-05 Theory of Rocket Propulsion
- 6.Mod-01 Lec-06 Rocket Equation and Staging of Rockets
- 7.Mod-01 Lec-07 Review of Rocket Principles Propulsion Efficiency
- 8.Mod-01 Lec-08 Examples Illustrating Theory of Rocket Propulsion and Introduction to Nozzles
- 9.Mod-01 Lec-09 Theory of Nozzles
- 10.Mod-01 Lec-10 Nozzles Shapes
- 11.Mod-01 Lec-11 Area Ratio of NozzlesUnder-expansion and Over-expansion
- 12.Mod-01 Lec-12 Characteristic Velocity and Thrust Coefficient
- 13.Mod-01 Lec-13 Divergence Loss in Conical Nozzles and the Bell Nozzle
- 14.Mod-01 Lec-14 Unconventional Nozzles and Problems in Nozzles
- 15.Mod-01 Lec-15 Criterion for Choice of Chemical Propellants
- 16.Mod-01 Lec-16 Choice of Fuel-Rich Propellants
- 17.Mod-01 Lec-17 Performance Prediction Analysis
- 18.Mod-01 Lec-18 Dissociation of Products of Combustion
- 19.Mod-01 Lec-19 Shifting Equilibrium and Frozen Flow in Nozzles
- 20.Mod-01 Lec-20 Factors Influencing Choice of Chemical Propellants
- 21.Mod-01 Lec-21 Low Energy Liquid Propellants and Hybrid Propellants
- 22.Mod-01 Lec-22 Introduction to Solid Propellant Rockets
- 23.Mod-01 Lec-23 Burn Rate of Solid Propellants and Equilibrium pressure in Solid Propellants Rockets
- 24.Mod-01 Lec-24 Design Aspects of Solid Propellant Rockets
- 25.Mod-01 Lec-25 Burning Surface Area of Solid Propellant Grains
- 26.Mod-01 Lec-26 Ignition of Solid Propellant Rockets
- 27.Mod-01 Lec-27 Review of Solid Propellant Rockets
- 28.Mod-01 Lec-28 Feed Systems for Liquid Propellant Rockets
- 29.Mod-01 Lec-29 Feed System Cycles for Pump Fed Liquid Propellant Rockets
- 30.Mod-01 Lec-30 Analysis of Gas Generator and Staged Combustion Cycles and Introduction to Injectors
- 31.Mod-01 Lec-31Injectors,Cooling of Chamber and Mixture Ratio Distribution
- 32.Mod-01 Lec-32 Efficiencies due to Mixture Ratio Distribution and Incomplete Vaporization
- 33.Mod-01 Lec-33 Pumps and Turbines; Propellant Feed System at Zero "g" Conditions
- 34.Mod-01 Lec-34 Review of Liquid Bi-propellant Rockets and Introduction to Mono-propellant Rockets
- 35.Mod-01 Lec-35 Introduction to Hybrid Rockets and a Simple Illustration of Combustion Instability
- 36.Mod-01 Lec-36 Combustion Instability in Solid Propellant and Liquid Propellant Rockets
- 37.Mod-01 Lec-37 Wave models of Oscillation
- 38.Mod-01 Lec-38 Mechanisms Causing Instabilities and Strategies for Avoiding Combustion Instability
- 39.Mod-01 Lec-39 Electric and Magnetic Fields and the Electrostatic Thruster
- 40.Mod-01 Lec-40 Electrical Thrusters
- 41.Mod-01 Lec-41 Advances in Rocket Propulsion

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