Lecture DescriptionSteel Making by Prof.Deepak Mazumdar,Prof.S.C.Koria,Department of Metallurgy and Material Science,IIT Kanpur.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Introduction (DM) : Introductory Remarks,A Historical Perspective,An Overview of Modern Iron and Steelmaking,Energy in Iron and Steel Industry,Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Issues – Environmental Issues – Health and Safety Issues,Iron and Steel: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow,Concluding Remarks.
The Science Base of Iron and Steelmaking (DM) : Introductory Remarks,Metallurgical Thermodynamics – Chemical Equilibrium – Activity and Equilibrium Constant – ΔG0 for Oxides – Activity Composition Relationships – Concentrated Solutions – Dilute Solutions – Chemical Potential and Equilibrium,Fluid Dynamics – Inference of Fluid Flow in steelmaking – Force Balance Expressions and Momentum Conservation Equations – Boundary Conditions – Laminar and Turbulent Flows – Calculation of Turbulent Flows in Steelmaking,Heat Transfer – Mechanism of Heat Transfer – Heat Conduction – Convective Heat Transfer – Radiation,Mass Transfer and Metallurgical Kinetics – Mechanism of Mass Transfer – Molecular Diffusion – Convective Mass Transfer – Chemical Reaction Kinetics.
Modern Steelmaking I: Oxygen Steelmaking (SCK) : Introductory Remarks,Historical Perspectives: Steelmaking Processes and their Developments,Pre – treatment of Hot Metal,Classification of Steels and the Role of Impurity Elements,Steelmaking Fundamentals – Chemical Reactions Equilibria – Carbon – Oxygen Reaction – Phosphorous – Oxygen Reaction – Manganese – Oxygen Reaction – Silicon – Oxygen Reaction – Sulphur – Oxygen Reaction (Desulphurization) – Iron-Oxygen Reaction – Slag Formation – Role of Slag – Basicity – Foaming Tendency – Oxidizing/Reducing Potential of Slag,The LD Steelmaking (Practice) process – The LD Converter – Lance – LD Shop Layout – Charge Calculations – Feed Materials – Physico – Chemical Characteristics of LD Steelmaking – Description of a Typical Heat – Exit Gases – Tapping – Modern Trends – Post Combustion – Slag Splashing,Bottom Blown Steelmaking,The Evolution of Combination Blown Steelmaking and its Distinctive Features,Concluding Remarks.
Modern Steelmaking II: Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking (SCK) : Introductory Remarks,Electric Steelmaking,Steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) – Construction of an Arc Furnace – Operation – Steelmaking in EAF – Eccentric Bottom Tapping – Comparison with Oxygen Steelmaking – Environmental issues in Arc Furnace Steelmaking,Developments in EAF steelmaking Technology – Oxygen lancing including Co jet – Gas injection through bottom – Post Combustion – Automation and Process control,Alloy Steelmaking in EAF with Some Examples,Concluding Remarks.
Steelmaking: Additional Topics (SCK) : Introductory Remarks,Other Steelmaking Processes – EOF (Energy Optimizing Furnace) Process – CONARC Process.
Refractory in steelmaking – Requirements of refractory Material – Various Refractory Materials – Fabrication and Types of Refractory Products – Emerging Trends,Clean steel – Cleanliness Assessment – Inclusions and Mechanical Properties – Sources of Inclusion in steel – Types of Inclusions – Properties of Inclusions – Inclusion Engineering,Process Control and Automation in Steel Industry – BOF – EAF,Concluding Remarks.
Deoxidation, Ladle and Tundish Metallurgy Operations (DM) : Introductory Remarks,slag Carry-over: Impact on Ladle Metallurgy,Deoxidation – Techniques of Deoxidizer Addition – Physical and Chemical Interaction between Solid Additions and Steel Melt – Types of Deoxidation – Deoxidation Kinetics and Products,Ladle Metallurgy Steelmaking Operations – Construction of Steelmaking ladles; Ladle Refractory, Preheating and Recycling – The Method of Inert Gas Stirring in Ladles – Temperature and Composition Control in Ladles – The Ladle Furnace – Injection Metallurgy – Miscellaneous Issues in Ladle Metallurgy,Vacuum Degassing – Principles – Degassing Techniques – Stream Degassing – Tank Degassing – Circulation Degassing – Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Hydrogen and Nitrogen Removal under Vacuum – Water Capacity of Ladle Slags,Flow sheet for Production of Clean Steel – Transfer Operations,Tundish Metallurgy – Tundish Design and Operations – Temperature and Cleanliness Control in Tundish – Sequence Casting and Grade Transition – Residual Metal loss in Ladles and Tundish,Concluding Remarks.
Solidification and Casting Processes (SCK) : Introductory Remarks,Fundamental Aspects of Solidification,Casting Processes – Ingot Casting – Continuous Casting – Process description – Continuous Casting Products and Casting Defects – Emerging Trends in Continuous Slab Casting – EM stirring and EM braking – Gas Injection in Mold – High Speed Slab Casting – Thin Slab casting – Strip Casting,Final Finishing Operations – Surface Treatment – Heat Treatment – Shaping and Secondary Product Manufacturing (Including Deformation Processing),Concluding Remarks.
Modeling and Measurements (DM) : Introductory Remarks,The role of Modeling in Iron and Steelmaking – Physical Modeling – Geometrical Similarity – Mechanical Similarity – Thermal Similarity – Chemical Similarity – Scaling Equations – Mathematical Modeling – Developing a Mathematical Model – The Role of Flow Modeling in Steelmaking – The Role of Commercial Software Packages – Sources of Uncertainty in Mathematical Model Predictions,Physical and Mathematical Modeling: Case Studies – Blast Furnace – Oxygen Steelmaking – Argon Stirred Ladles – Continuous Casting,Measurements and Measuring Devices in Iron and Steelmaking,Concluding Remarks.
Iron and Steelmaking in India (DM) : Introductory Remarks,Raw Materials – Availability, Distribution and Reserve – Characteristics of Indian Raw Materials and their Impact on Iron and Steelmaking,Iron and Steelmaking in India – Early years – Steelmaking in Modern India – Integrated and Mini Mils – Layout of an Integrated Iron and Steel Plant – Future,Problems Facing the Domestic Steel Producing Sectors – Mini Mills – Integrated Mills,Steel Education and Research in India,Concluding Remarks – DM: Dipak Mazumdar – SCK: Satish Ch. Koria.