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Freshman Organic Chemistry I

Yale,, Spring 2011 , Prof. Michael McBride

Updated On 02 Feb, 19

Overview

Mechanism: How Energies and Kinetic Order Influence Reaction Rates - Peculiar Rate Laws, Bond Dissociation Energies, and Relative Reactivities - Rate and Selectivity in Radical-Chain Reactions - Electronegativity, Bond Strength, Electrostatics, and Non-Bonded Interactions - Solvation, H-Bonding, and Ionophores - Brnsted Acidity and the Generality of Nucleophilic Substitution - Nucleophilic Substitution Tools - Stereochemistry, Rate Law, Substrate, Nucleophile - Solvent, Leaving Group, Bridgehead Substitution, and Pentavalent Carbon - Pentavalent Carbon? E2, SN1, E1 - Cation Intermediates. Alkenes: Formation, Addition, and Stability - Carbocations and the Mechanism of Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes and Alkynes - Nucleophilic Participation During Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes - Addition to Form Three-Membered Rings: Carbenoids and Epoxidation.

Epoxide Opening, Dipolar Cycloaddition, and Ozonolysis - Metals and Catalysis in Alkene Oxidation, Hydrogenation, Metathesis, and Polymerization - Isoprenoids, Rubber, and Tuning Polymer Properties - Alkynes. Conjugation in Allylic Intermediates and Dienes - Linear and Cyclic Conjugation Theory. 4n+2 Aromaticity - Aromatic Transition States: Cycloaddition and Electrocyclic Reactions - Electronic and Vibrational Spectroscopy - Functional Groups and Fingerprints in IR Spectroscopy. Precession of Magnetic Nuclei - Medical MRI and Chemical NMR - Diamagnetic Anisotropy and Spin-Spin Splitting - Higher-Order Effects, Dynamics, and the NMR Time Scale.

C-13 and 2D NMR. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution - Aromatic Substitution in Synthesis: Friedel-Crafts and Moses Gomberg - Triphenylmethyl and an Introduction to Carbonyl Chemistry - Mechanism and Equilibrium of Carbonyl Reactions - Imines and Enamines. Oxidation and Reduction - Oxidation States and Mechanisms - Periodate Cleavage, Retrosynthesis, and Green Chemistry - Measuring Bond Energies: Guest Lecture by Prof. G. Barney Ellison - Green Chemistry. Acids and Acid Derivatives - Acids and Acid Derivatives - Acyl Insertions and [gr]α-Reactivity - [gr]α-Reactivity and Condensation Reactions - Proving the Configuration of Glucose and Synthesizing Two Unnatural Products - Review: Synthesis of Cortisone.

Includes

Lecture 12: Nucleophilic Participation During Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes

4.1 ( 11 )


Lecture Details

Freshman Organic Chemistry II (CHEM 125B)When electrophilic addition involves a localized carbocation intermediate, skeletal rearrangement sometimes occurs, but it can be avoided when both alkene carbons are involved in an unsymmetrical 3-center-2-electron bond, as in Markovnikov hydration via alkoxymercuration followed by reduction. Similarly a reagent that attacks both alkene carbons simultaneously by providing a nucleophilic component during electrophilic attack can avoid rearrangement, as in reactions that proceed via three-membered-ring halonium intermediates. Simultaneity in making two bonds during formation of cyclopropanes from carbenes can be demonstrated using stereochemistry. Anti-Markovnikov hydration can be achieved via hydroboration followed by oxidation with hydroperoxide. Rearrangement of the borane hydroperoxide intermediate with frontside C-O bond formation shows close orbital analogy to backside attack during SN2 substitution. Again syn-addition shows that nucleophilic attack occurs simultaneously with electrophilic attack on the alkene. 0000 - Chapter 1. Forming Unrearranged Alcohols via Hydroxymercuration0736 - Chapter 2. Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes with Nucleophilic Participation Halonium Ions 2456 - Chapter 3. Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes with Nucleophilic Participation Carbenes 3655 - Chapter 4. Anti-Markovnikov Hydration via Hydroboration and OxidationComplete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website httpoyc.yale.eduThis course was recorded in Spring 2011.

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Sam

Excellent course helped me understand topic that i couldn't while attendinfg my college.

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Dembe

Great course. Thank you very much.

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