Freshman Organic Chemistry I

Yale,, Spring 2011 , Prof. Michael McBride

Updated On 02 Feb, 19


Mechanism: How Energies and Kinetic Order Influence Reaction Rates - Peculiar Rate Laws, Bond Dissociation Energies, and Relative Reactivities - Rate and Selectivity in Radical-Chain Reactions - Electronegativity, Bond Strength, Electrostatics, and Non-Bonded Interactions - Solvation, H-Bonding, and Ionophores - Brnsted Acidity and the Generality of Nucleophilic Substitution - Nucleophilic Substitution Tools - Stereochemistry, Rate Law, Substrate, Nucleophile - Solvent, Leaving Group, Bridgehead Substitution, and Pentavalent Carbon - Pentavalent Carbon? E2, SN1, E1 - Cation Intermediates. Alkenes: Formation, Addition, and Stability - Carbocations and the Mechanism of Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes and Alkynes - Nucleophilic Participation During Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes - Addition to Form Three-Membered Rings: Carbenoids and Epoxidation.

Epoxide Opening, Dipolar Cycloaddition, and Ozonolysis - Metals and Catalysis in Alkene Oxidation, Hydrogenation, Metathesis, and Polymerization - Isoprenoids, Rubber, and Tuning Polymer Properties - Alkynes. Conjugation in Allylic Intermediates and Dienes - Linear and Cyclic Conjugation Theory. 4n+2 Aromaticity - Aromatic Transition States: Cycloaddition and Electrocyclic Reactions - Electronic and Vibrational Spectroscopy - Functional Groups and Fingerprints in IR Spectroscopy. Precession of Magnetic Nuclei - Medical MRI and Chemical NMR - Diamagnetic Anisotropy and Spin-Spin Splitting - Higher-Order Effects, Dynamics, and the NMR Time Scale.

C-13 and 2D NMR. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution - Aromatic Substitution in Synthesis: Friedel-Crafts and Moses Gomberg - Triphenylmethyl and an Introduction to Carbonyl Chemistry - Mechanism and Equilibrium of Carbonyl Reactions - Imines and Enamines. Oxidation and Reduction - Oxidation States and Mechanisms - Periodate Cleavage, Retrosynthesis, and Green Chemistry - Measuring Bond Energies: Guest Lecture by Prof. G. Barney Ellison - Green Chemistry. Acids and Acid Derivatives - Acids and Acid Derivatives - Acyl Insertions and [gr]α-Reactivity - [gr]α-Reactivity and Condensation Reactions - Proving the Configuration of Glucose and Synthesizing Two Unnatural Products - Review: Synthesis of Cortisone.


Lecture 22: Medical MRI and Chemical NMR

4.1 ( 11 )

Lecture Details

Freshman Organic Chemistry II (CHEM 125B)Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires gradients in the applied magnetic field, while chemical nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) requires a highly uniform field. When protons in different parts of the body can be driven to broadcast different frequencies, tomography allows reconstructing a three-dimensional image showing water location. Dependence of the signal intensity on relaxation allows BOLD functional MRI that shows brain activity. When the applied magnetic field is sufficiently uniform, chemical NMR spectra differentiate proton signals according to local field variations within molecules. Modern research in a chemical laboratory like Yales depends on the availability of many magnetic resonance spectrometers. Peak integrals show the relative number of protons in different molecular environments, while peak frequencies or "chemical shifts" show the bonding environment of groups of protons. Often downfield (deshielded) or upfield (shielded) shifts are correlated with local electron density.0000 - Chapter 1. Tomography, Field Gradients, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1616 - Chapter 2. The Development of NMR Spectroscopy 2916 - Chapter 3. Counting Protons by Integration 3733 - Chapter 4. Local Magnetic Fields and the Chemical Shift Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website httpoyc.yale.eduThis course was recorded in Spring 2011.



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Excellent course helped me understand topic that i couldn't while attendinfg my college.

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Great course. Thank you very much.