Introduction to catalysts and catalysis:Catalysts and catalytic reactors, heterogeneous catalyst, activation energy, porous structure, types of catalysts, adsorption – Steps in catalytic reaction: adsorption, desorption and reaction:Steps in catalysis, adsorption, desorption, surface reaction, types of catalytic reactors, adsorption isotherm, single site, dual site mechanisms, Langmuir Hinshelwood, Eley Rideal, Rate controlling steps – Derivation of the rate equation:Rate controlling steps, Rate law for hetergeneous reaction, Derivation of rate equation, Catalytic sites, Equilibrium, Site balance – Heterogenous data analysis for reactor design:Deduce mechanism; reactor design – Fluidized reactor; Case study: Germanium epitaxial growth – Catalyst deactivation and accounting for it in design – Deactivation; Rate law; Modes of deactivation – Poisoning; Fluidized CSTR; Moving bed reactor – Synthesize the rate equation:Experimental data, dehydrogenation of cyclohexane, validation, laboratory reactors for catalytic reactions, differential reactors, slurry reactor, least square method – Introduction to intraparticle diffusion:Internal (intraparticle) diffusion, wall effect, tortuosity, porosity, effective diffusivity, constriction, flux, differential balance, types of rate constants and their units, concentration profile inside the catalyst, Thiele modulus
ntraparticle diffusion: Thiele modulus and effectiveness factor:Concentration profile inside the catalyst, effectiveness factor, Derivation of effectiveness factor, Thiele modulus – Diffusion limited reaction, reactor design, effectiveness factor, spinning basket reactor, apparent order, apparent activation energy, non-isothermal effectiveness factor – Exothermic reaction, thermal conductivity of catalyst, multiple steady states, endothermic reaction, catalyst geometries, catalyst slab – Effectiveness factor and Introduction to external mass transfer:Effect of catalyst particle diameter, external mass transfer, boundary layer, mass transfer coefficient, rate controlling mechanism – External Mass Transfer:External mass transfer coefficient, Reynolds number, Schmidt number, Sherwood number, interfacial area, fixed bed reactor – Implications to rate data interpretation and design:Weisz-Prater criterion; Mears’criterion; Packed-bed reactor design – Generalized criterion; Network of first order reactions; Vector of effectiveness factors – Packed-bed reactor design:Different configurations; Packed-bed reactor design: First order reaction, Second order reaction – Fluidized bed reactor design:Kunii-Levenspiel model: Basic principles – Different regimes; Mass transport in fluidized beds; First order reaction; resistances
Gas-liquid reactions-1: Theories of mass transfer into agitated liquids:Mass transfer into agitated liquids; Film theory, Penetration theory – GLR-2: Effect of chemical reaction on mass transfer: the slow reaction regime:Film theory, pseudo-first order, Hatta number, slow reaction regime, kinetic sub-regime, diffusional sub-regime – GLR-3: Transition to fast reaction, and the Fast reaction regime:Film theory, Enhancement factor; transition to fast reaction, Fast reaction regime – GLR-4: Fast reaction example; Instantaneous reaction regime:Film theory, second order case; Instantaneous reaction; limiting enhancement; enhancement factor plot – GLR-5: Transition to Instantaneous reaction; Reaction regimes in surface renewal theories:Film theory, transition from fast to Instantaneous reaction; Surface renewal theories, slow reaction – GLR-6: Reaction regimes in surface renewal theories:Surface renewal theories, transition to fast reaction, fast reaction regime, comparison of surface renewal and film theories, Danckwerts’ plot, second order reaction with mass transfer – GLR-7: Surface renewal theories: Instantaneous reaction and Summing up:Surface renewal theories, Instantaneous reaction, reactor design
Fluid-solid non-catalytic reactions:Modes; Basic principles; Progressive-conversion model; Shrinking core model – Gas film diffusion control; Ash layer diffusion control; Surface reaction control – Other geometries, Combination of resistances; Case study: Dissolution of monodispersed and polydispersed particles – Distribution of residence time:Introduction; Non-ideal reactor examples: Gas-liquid CSTR, Packed-bed reactor, CSTR – Measurement of residence time distribution:Pulse input; Step input; RTD functions: E and F-curves – Residence time distribution function:Properties: Mean, variance, skewness; RTD of ideal reactors: PFR, CSTR – Reactor diagnostics and troubleshooting:RTD of laminar flow reactors; RTD functions: Perfect operation, Bypassing, Dead volume – Modeling non-ideal reactors:Combination of reactors: PFR-CSTR in Series; Mixing: Macro- and Micro-mixing – Residence time distribution: Performance of non-ideal reactors:Segregation model; Maximum mixedness model; RTD with multiple reactions – Non-ideal Reactors: Tanks-in-series model:Non-ideal reactors, tank-in-series model, one parameter model, axial mixing, variance, E curve – Non-ideal Reactors: Dispersion model:Dispersion model, closed-closed vessel, open-open vessel, Peclet number, E curve – Non-ideal Reactors: Dispersion model and introduction to multiparameter models – Dispersion model, Damkohler number, conversion in non-ideal tubular reactor, two parameter model, dead zones, bypass, E curve – Non-ideal Reactors: Multiparameter models:Tracer experiment, multiparameter model, ideal reactor network, E curve
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