Mass Transfer

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Mass transfer operations in process industries : Absorption, Distillation, Extraction, Adsorption, Drying; Design and performance of unit – Operations : Rate and equilibrium stage based modeling approaches – Fundamentals of mass transfer : Diffusion, Fick’s first law, mass transfer coefficients, film theory/surface renewal theory/boundary layer theory,Cocurrent, counter current and cross-current continuous contact, material balance and operating line – Equilibrium stage modeling : Co-current cascades, counter-current cascades, cross-current cascades, operating and equilibrium lines, number of equilibrium stages – Absorption : Equilibrium approach : Henry’s law, Raoult’s law, material balance, operating line, minimum liquid flowrates, number of equilibrium stages, deviation from ideal systems (Murphee efficiency) – Rate approach : Number of transfer units (NTU), height of transfer units (HTU) Packed and staged columns – Hydrodynamic considerations : Loading/flooding criterion, pressure-drops – Distillation : Vapor-liquid equilibrium, T-x-y diagram, bubble and dew point calculations – Flash calculations,Ponchon-Savarit and McCabe-Thiele method for equilibrium stage calculations – Minimum and total reflux., optimum design

Deviation from ideal VLE : azeoptropic distillation, packed column design, complex distillation columns,Fenske- Underwood-Gilliland shortcut method for multi-component distillation Design – Extraction : Ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium, triangular coordinates, single-stage extraction,Multi-stage cross-current extraction, continuous countercurrent multistage extraction – Adsorption and ion exchange:Physical and chemical adsorption, adsorbents, adsorption equilibrium and isotherms,Single-stage, multi-stage cross-current and multi-stage counter current operations,equilibrium and operating lines,Liquid-solid agitated vessel adsorber, packed continuous contactor, breakthrough curves,Rate equations for non-porous and porous adsorbents, nonisothermal operation, pressure-swing adsorption,Principles of ion exchange, analogy between adsorption and ion exchange – Drying : Equilibrium, insoluble and soluble liquids,Drying rate curve, rate and time of batch drying,Mechanisms of batch drying, continuous drying.

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