Negative feedback systems and stability : Negative feedback amplifier using an integrator, Frequency and time domain behavior, Loop gain and its implications; Negative feedback amplifier realization – Finite DC gain; increasing DC gain; Effect of multiple poles; Negative feedback systems with multiple poles and zeros in the forward path – Stability analysis using Nyquist criterion; Nyquist criterion; Loop gain-Bode plot and time domain interpretation; Significance of 60 degree phase margin.
Opamp at the block level: Frequency compensation : Concept of the opamp for realizing negative feedback circuits; Realizing a multi stage opamp-frequency compensation-miller opamp – Realizing a multi stage opamp- feedforward compensated opamp – Opamp as a general block; unity gain compensation; nonidealities-swing limits, slew rate, off set; dc negative feedback around opamps.
Opamp amplifiers : Amplifiers using Miller compensated opamp; Effect of input capacitance; gain bandwidth product – Transimpedence amplifier; lead-lag compensation; inverting and noninverting amplifiers-CMRR and its importance.
Components available on an IC : IC components and their models.
Single ended opamp design : Realizing a single stage opamp-diff pair; small signal ac analysis; Single stage opamp-mismatch and noise; Single stage opamp-telescopic cascode – Replica biasing a cascode; Single stage opamp-folded cascode; Two stage miller compensated opamp.
Fully differential opamp design : Fully differential opamps; Differential and common mode half circuits; common mode feedback; Fully differential miller compensated opamp-common mode feedback loop and its stability – Fully differential single stage opamp; Fully differential telescopic cascode opamp; Fully differential feedforward compensated opamp.
Phase locked loop : Frequency multiplier-Phase locked loop; Lock range limitations; type ll loop; Jitter & Phase noise; Leeson’s model of phase noise of VCOs – Continuous time approximation; PLL transfer functions; Reference feedthrough spurs; LC oscillators.
Reference voltage and current generators : Bandgap reference; Bandgap reference; Constant current and constant gm bias generators.
Continuous time filters : Active RC filters using integrators.
Switched capacitor filters : Switched capacitor filters using the bilinear transformation.
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